Hello, my dear colleagues! This post will discuss storytelling methodology according to Shin and Crandall (2014) and showcase successful examples of storytelling, along with using digital tools.
Storytelling should be used as often as possible in the ESL classroom, but in our country almost no one uses it. The main reason for this is that requires a lot of planning, and a lot of educators avoid authentic materials that are not part of the textbook.
How can you select an appropriate story for your class?
According to Shin and Crandall (2014), p.213, stories should:
- be highly predictable;
- be familiar to the home culture;
- have a high percentage of known vocabulary;
- include repetitive and predictable patterns;
- provide opportunities to apply drama and Total Physical Response;
- lend themselves well to use of visual and realia to make input comprehensible.
What are the benefits of using stories in the young learner classroom?
- Stories present an authentic form of communication;
- They introduce new cultures to children;
- They teach young learners in an entertaining way;
- Stories help develop critical thinking skills;
- Stories develop reading habits and promote early literacy.
Scaffolded design of a storytelling lesson
Before you start reading a story to your class, you need to do some pre-teaching of the vocabulary, grammar, language functions, and culture, if this aspect exists in the book. Here are some examples of how can you organize your target language with an imaginary book which talks about animals and daily activities:
- Vocabulary (names of animals, action verbs);
- Language functions (expressing ability, describing what different animals can do);
- Grammar structures (the present simple tense – verb to be, first-person singular, the modal verb for ability (can), positive and interrogative forms of the modal verbs).
Now that we have determined our pre-teaching outcomes, we can start planing the lesson. This is the structure of the lesson we should follow according to Shin and Crandall and Theme-Based Instruction).
Warm-up happens before storytelling and it is used to:
- Capture students’ attention;
- Connect to prior knowledge and experiences;
- Review language students have learned;
- Pre-teach new vocabulary or expressions;
- Ask students to predict what will happen;
- Give students a purpose for listening.
Storytelling warm-up should include theatrics, props, rehearsals and script. (Shin and Crandall, 2014, p. 215)
Theatrics include gestures, body movement, dramatic pauses, character voices, facial expressions, speaking slowly and clearly.
Props include visuals for setting and characters, realia, masks for role play, costumes for role play, hand or finger puppets, interactive slides or storyboard.
Rehearsals include memorizing the text, including questions for students, using cue cards, practicing in front of the mirror.
Script includes using illustrations from the book, adapting the script to learners’ levels, creating roles students can play, integrating songs or chants, preparing places in the storytelling for questions and predictions.
Presentation happens during storytelling activities and it consists of:
- Questions and answers – discussing the story;
- Repetition – repeating keywords and phrases in chants to enhance retention;
- The Total Physical Response to illustrate the story and appeal to kinesthetic learners;
- Creating your own ending to promote creativity.
Practice, application, assessment, and follow up
Practice, application, assessment, and follow up are after-storytelling activities and they can consist of:
- Check predictions;
- Games – start and stop (retell the story and have students stop you when they hear a mistake);
- Storyboarding – sequencing the events of the story;
- Story mapping – story analysis;
- Creating mini-books;
- Creating a personalized story with their own characters;
- Creating a parallel story – what would happen in an alternate universe;
- Projects – from STEM to crafting;
- Play performance – performing the actions from the story as the teacher reads.
1st grade Halloween storytelling: Rod Campbell – Scary Things
The lesson plan presented in the presentation below involved creating a creative storytelling lesson for the 1st grade. The topic was Halloween, so I selected a book by Rod Campbell – Scary Things. The learners are not native speakers, so the lesson plan is developed based on a very simple book.
P.S. This is one of the lesson plans I created in my master studies, and I got a 10🥇. It was the best storytelling lesson plan in the whole group. ✨
Additional references for further learning:
Every storytelling article is a reflection of my past storytelling workshops and they include digital storytelling materials, videos of my storytelling, and photos of various activities from different stages in storytelling.
- My storytelling-based learning curriculum outline;
- Class Two at the Zoo by Julia Jarman
- The Mood Hoover by Paul Brown, Illustrated by Rowena Blyth
- Dear Mother Goose by Michael Rosen & Nick Sharratt
- Shin, J.K. & Crandall, J. (2014). Teaching young learners of English: From Theory to Practice. Boston. MA: Heinle Cengage learning.
Have you ever followed the scaffolding methodology to include storytelling in your curriculum? What are the main obstacles for including storytelling in your teaching context? Write in the comments below, I would like to hear your opinion!